Understanding Excess Capacity in Different Arenas With Examples

4-3-11Did You Know?
Currently, the Chinese economy is facing the problem of excessive capacity.
Capacity is the ‘ability’ to do something. In business and economics, capacity means the ability to produce. Thus, the definition of excess capacity is the ability to produce more than there is demand. Similar to manufacturing, it also applies to the service industry. If you see idle human resources, it implies that the firm has excess capacity; however, the demand is comparatively lesser.
Excess capacity = Potential Output – Actual Output

As mentioned above, we see news reports that China’s industry is facing the problem of excess capacity. Many industries no longer require any capital for expansion plans, and have to bear the increasing labor costs too. Thus, having overcapacity can prove harmful to the economy.
In business, excess capacity means a firm has more capacity to supply than its demand. A very common phenomenon observed is at some restaurants, where you find empty chairs and the staff being idle. What does this indicate? It indicates that the restaurant has capacity to accommodate more guests. However, the demand is not equivalent to its capacity.
What is Excess Capacity in Microeconomics?
A situation of excess capacity arises usually in the scenario of a monopolistic competition.

Monopolistic competition: It is that market, wherein, all manufacturers are selling products that are unique and not perfect substitutes of one another. In this market, any new firm is freely able to enter the fray. They tend to have excess capacity in order to provide for future growth in demand. It implies that a firm is operating at a level that is below that level of output where cost is minimum.
There is excess capacity always in a monopolistic competition, in the long run. Efficient sale is achieved at a point where ‘Marginal Cost’ is equal to ‘Actual Cost’. Profit maximization occurs when ‘Marginal Revenue’ is equal to ‘Marginal Cost’, implying that there is an excess capacity left at the disposal of the firm. Thus, the difference between both the quantity levels is the excess capacity. The AC curve is downward sloping, which gives the firm an opportunity to produce more output at the same level than the actual production.
Monopolistic competition: graph indicating excess capacity
Excess capacity
MC = Marginal Cost Curve
AC = Average Cost Curve
AR = Average Revenue or Demand Curve
MR = Marginal Revenue Curve
Profit maximization is the level at which Marginal Cost = Marginal Revenue. Thus, the firm produces OQ level of output. However, the cost-minimization level is at OQ1. Hence, there is excess capacity. Thus, the difference between OQ and OQ1 is the excess capacity of the firm.
What is Excess Capacity in Business?
This means that the capacity to supply is more than the demand. If there is too much excess capacity, it may lead to the industry or factory getting converted into a sick unit.

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Meaning of Substitute and Complementary Goods in Economics With Examples

4-3-15Substitute goods have positive cross price elasticity, while complementary goods have negative cross price elasticity.
Economics classifies goods on the basis of various characteristics, viz., luxury goods, essential goods, substitute goods, Giffen goods, etc. These goods have various price elasticity demands. ‘Willingness to pay’ is a terminology that defines how much quantity a customer is willing to buy at a given price level.
Price elasticity measures the degree of variance in the quantity demanded, in response to the change in price of a product. Price elasticity of any product is influenced by many factors such as technology, fashion, industry, economic conditions of the nation, rate of inflation, resource availability, etc. Cross price elasticity measures the impact on the demand of a good in response to the change in price of any other good. This Buzzle article talks in depth about the complementary and substitute goods, the difference between them, and their cross price elasticity.
What are Substitute Goods?

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